Green Technologies

Green Tech

Go Eco-friendly The Easiest Way

Student carrying recycling bin

Saving energy in your own home, using sources efficiently and using eco-friendly options for material for building houses is a terrific way to start going eco-friendly. Additionally, you are able to mind a couple of easy steps for example using eco-friendly electronics and taking advantage of waste biomass for helpful reasons. It isn’t very difficult to begin going eco-friendly today.

Eco-friendly technologies happen to be for a really lengthy time now but adoption continues to be slow. Saving energy in your own home, using sources efficiently and using eco-friendly options for material for building houses is a terrific way to start going eco-friendly. Additionally, you are able to mind a couple of easy steps to visit eco-friendly in your own home:

1. Choose “Eco-friendly” electronics:Apply for Energy Star ranked home appliances, energy-efficient computer systems, NAT’s, wise products that power lower keep along with other eco-friendly electronics. Energy Star ranked monitors, televisions, refrigerators, automatic washers, microwaves, etc. generally use 20%-30% less energy and therefore are all readily available for the most part stores….

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Think Eco-friendly When Selling Your House


With todays growing understanding of ecological issues, eco-friendly may be the new black.  Today everybody thinks about the problem eco-friendly.  Consumers cant get an adequate amount of eco-friendly: be it a sage eco-friendly throw, leafy eco-friendly salads, or perhaps a beautiful eco-friendly tree or shrub within the backyard.

With todays growing understanding of ecological issues eco-friendly may be the new black.  Today everybody thinks about the problem eco-friendly.  Consumers cant get an adequate amount of eco-friendly: be it a sage eco-friendly throw, leafy eco-friendly salads, or perhaps a beautiful eco-friendly tree or shrub within the backyard.

Todays eco-friendly movement also carries over when you’re planning to market your house. Potential purchasers are savvy. They expect the homes characteristics to become current and also the physical space to stay in relocate condition. They have to have the ability to consider a space and know precisely what you can use it for and they have to have the ability to see themselves living and relaxing in your home.

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Renewable Power Series Cheap, Clean Energy Everywhere Now!


I’d sincerely wished to learn in the a few things i have discovered about energy in the last two decades. Enough time has transpired without progress. Irrrve never found anybody to assist or encourage me to create these not too technology to promote, here I’ll offer them around the world and find out if anybody will dsicover value in free information.

The combustion process 1800s engineering gave us, I call slow burn. In the last century fraxel treatments continues to be maintained since it provided great profits to Big Oil, Big Energy, Big Banking and large Government, through fuel taxes a really big conspiracy to tear off global consumers. Have the ability to decided on the desirability of exceeding twenty occasions the fossil fuel required for inferior performance that poisons the mobile phone industry’s air, water and soil. Indeed, it might be shown soon that liquid fuel technologies have squandered fifty occasions more fuel than needed per developed horsepower.

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Know and obtain the Fundamental Tools You have to Enjoy Your Gardening Experience

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A spare time activity is really a relaxing pastime that everybody must have to wind down following a hard work day. Although some prefer more sedentary hobbies like reading through or hearing music, other may have a more active hobby like painting, gardening, woodworking etc. These kinds of active hobbies need you to possess some tools to savor the hobby. For instance, a designer will require brushes, fresh paint, palette, drafting board, paper and the like. A contractor will require wood, saw, hammer, nails etc.

Similarly, an individual who likes gardening must also acquire some tools. Gardening is really a rewarding and relaxing hobby for while you need to strive to plant and keep an outdoor, the end result – lush foliage, abundance of flowers or perhaps a vegetable garden filled with produce is a fulfilling experience. Besides gardening likewise helps to safeguard the ecology and you’re adding to saving the ozone layer if you take to gardening.

To make certain you like your gardening experience, you should know the fundamental tools you’ll need for gardening. A few of these tools are costly and you may find and try discount rates at diy stores or purchase them at flea marketplaces or yard sales too. Your fundamental tools can cost you less that $100 and you may increase the tools if you think that you will need to continue gardening like a long-term activity. Listed here are the 6 fundamental tools to begin gardening:

Spading fork

go green 7Hoe

Watering can


Bow rake

Garden shears

The spading fork may be the first tool all budding home gardeners who’re beginning on your own need. It’ll open and rake the soil which is required to fertilize it and obtain it prepared to plant new plants. The spading fork resembles a pitchfork having a short handle and wide tines. It’s very helpful for digging and splitting up hard soil. The hoe is required to cultivate the very best soil and obtain it ready for water and nutrition to enter. It’s also a significantly needed tool to combat the enemy of home gardeners weeds.

Plants need water along with a watering can is a vital item for any new garden for you personally can pour a light flow water onto youthful new plants. When you get a watering can having a removable mind, you are able to spray longer distances. As the garden will get bigger, you may want to give a hose having a spray nozzle attached to ensure that you are able to achieve the far finishes of the garden. A lawn may have a easy and affordable watering which will look attractive and water the lawn and surrounding flower beds simultaneously while conserving water too.

Have to search hard and plant trees and bushes? You will want to purchase a round-ended garden shovel with this. A bow rake having a metal frame that is attached short tines is required to level the soil after turning it to ensure that it’s ready for planting, to get rid of rocks or large clods of dirt also to smooth the soil while using flat finish just before planting. Pruning plants, bushes and tree leaves and roots is essential to possess healthy plants. So, obtain a good set of garden shears to help you not just with pruning but additionally with shaping bushes and getting rid of dead branches or unnecessary foliage.

Listed here are a couple of other tools that you could supplment your fundamental gardening tool collection while you want. The cultivator can be used to combine manure and soil, remove soil protuberances, aerate the soil or clean moss. Combined with different accessories, the cultivator may also plough the soil or cut through overgrown plant life. If you choose to continue gardening, you can include different shears such as the secateurs intended for pruning thick branches. The grass shears are meant particularly to chop edges of lawn and grass that has ‘t be cut with a lawnmower

A hands-operated wheelbarrow is useful for those who have a large garden and want to maneuver large amounts of soil, containers, garden equipment or plants in one finish to a different. Individuals with large grass may have a lawnmower which makes cutting grass a lot simpler. Each one of these garden equipment and tools are available in a variety of prices. You may choose what you would like based on your financial allowance and just how extensive an outdoor you intend to keep.

The Airforce vs The G-Force Hand Dryer

600x400---ACCIONA-1 The Airforce hand dryer from World Dryer is one the UK’s most prolific ‘hands under’ high speed, energy efficient hand dryer in the UK.

The question we ask is ‘Whether this justified on a product performance basis?’

PHS dominate the hand dryer rental market and they own Warner Howard who have been the main UK hand dryer supplier for 30 years and as such are entrenched in specification and distribution. They also own one of the major online retailers which they covertly distribute through, so they pretty much have the market sewn up.

The Airforce hand dryer is certainly a very good product but its quite expensive so how does it compare with similar compact, high speed, energy efficient hand dryers. This article compares it with the G-Force, a very similar sized EU manufactured hand dryer.

High Speed Hand Drying

Technical specification for the Airforce states a 12 to 15 second dry time. This is fairly accurate if just a small amount of water is applied however we have done some fully immersed tests and it was taking over 20 seconds.

Our testing showed that under normal hand washing conditions, with a quick run under the tap, high speed hands under dryers like the G-Force and Airforce perform just as well as blade type hand dryers, however in fully immersed tests blade hand dryers are better at removing large amounts of water, therefore are probably slightly better suited in clinical environments where hands are washed more thoroughly.

Although the G-Force hand dryer is a hands under dryer it has a blade configuration as opposed to the multi-jet set up of the Airforce, so water is removed more consistently and quicker with larger water volumes.

Wind TurbinesHygienic Hand Drying

The Airforce has championed its Steritouch anti-bacterial plastics. For a hand dryer to have this internally is probably a slight plus to inhibit growth of bacteria where it is difficult to clean regularly, however how important for hand hygiene is it when the hand dryer is non-touch sensor activated is debatable. The G-Force hand dryer has AGION silver ion coating internally and externally, but also has the added advantage of having a optional HEPA filter incorporated into the unit to remove 99.99% of airborne bacteria and dust particles.

Low energy hand drying

G-Force hand dryers are available as a more powerful 1.1kw or as a eco 0.55kw version, the 0.55kw version is 2-3 seconds (13-15 in total) but obviously uses half the power so approximately 2 watts per dry, whereas the 1.1kw uses 3.6 watts per dry which is virtually identical to the Airforce. Please note that this according to manufacturers product specification not actual dry times.

Noise level comparison

The G-Force eco is just 68db the turbo model is 74db both quieter than the Airforce at 79db. 10 decibels equates to a doubling in noise level so the G-Force is a noticeably quieter hand dryer.


Difficult to be objective about beauty, why else would Mick Hucknell have dated some of the world’s most glamorous women?

Both the Airforce and the G-Force are attractive and discrete hand dryers that add to the decor of any washroom.


The Airforce probably just wins in terms of the internal build quality however the G-force carries a 2 year longer guarantee (5 years in total) so really not much in it.

How Green Is Your Home?

A dwelling that is green is a house built and run with the environment in mind. With the threat of global warming becoming more urgent everyday, the average family needs to do their part to make as little impact as possible. Going energy efficient is a way to do this and the first place to start is with your dwelling. You can find a lot of home supplies from bathtubs to faucets at Whether you are constructing your toilet or your kitchen, it will help you in the long run if you build it from an environment friendly perspective. The greener your household will be; the healthier environment it will have. You can use environment friendly things from paints to drapes and other objects that will add to the overall decor of your home.

Styles of Green Homes You Can Choose

There are quite a few styles of green homes available. Styles can range from conventional, to rounded, earth-sheltered and organic. Each style has many plans you can choose from to make your home unique, comfortable and concerned with the environment.

* A conventional styled residence typically means that it will fit the normal concept of a household according to the opinions of the Western world. Homes that are considered conventional usually have vertical walls and a rectilinear floor plan. Styles that are considered conventional can include traditional, contemporary, bungalow, Victorian or southwestern to name just a few.
* Earth sheltered styles of green homes can be situated either partially or entirely into the earth. There are many advantages to you and to the environment when you choose this style of home. When you go about six feet below the surface, you will notice that the temperature only fluctuates a few degrees all year round. The benefits to this are that it will require much less energy to heat and to cool your home, saving the environment from the depletion of natural resources.* A residence that is rounded or curved in appearance is considered rounded styling. This means that the plan for the house has a significant part that is curved or rounded. It is said that when you use natural materials and this style of home you will feel in touch with nature to the extent that your home feels like you are part of the environment itself. This style of home is very environment friendly.
Possible Building Materials You Can Use

If you are looking to establish a new household, think with the environment in mind. You can use renewable resources such as lightweight concrete, manufactured, stone, straw, wood or earth. Each one of these materials has its own merits and disadvantages, but they all have the environment in mind.
* Wood is one of the most versatile materials for building. It used to be considered a sustainable material for construction, but with the over harvesting of forests worldwide, the worldâ€s greed has outpaced the capabilities of forests to regenerate. You can build a green home with an eye to the environment by using stick framed, timber framed and log wood if wood is what you must have.* Earth is an abundant resource. What can be more environment friendly than the very dirt beneath your feet? You can choose from earthen materials kind to the environment such as cob, adobe and rammed earth.
* Lightweight concrete has been used for building for the last 50 years in the United States. Its strength is not as great as the usual concrete used for construction, but you can rest assured that it will weather the elements just as well. Advantages to using this building material is that can be used for insulation, it has great fire resistant properties, it will require a smaller foundation and there isnâ€t as great a need for reinforcement of structural steel. This impacts the environment in a positive way.
* Manufactured building materials appeal to those who have concern for the environment but donâ€t want to live in a home made of dirt, tree parts, straw, etc. Usually a home made with this type of material once built will make an excellent home that is energy efficient with thought to the environment.

Building energy efficient can mean a lot to the environment. The environment and its natural resources is something that needs to be passed on to our children. If we don’t start thinking towards the future there will be nothing left of the environment to pass on.

Article highlights: Building materials that can be used to construct a green dwelling. The different styles of green households you can choose when you decide to build a green residence.

Interesting Fact: A recent report states that with all the huge costs associated with the building of a new home, there is no significant difference in the price of building green.

Global Warming Details For Children

Global Warming Details in the The World Climate Expedition in the Question Rotunda. These components about global warming is attracted in the “Find Out MoreInch possibilities presented in the world Earth Climate Expedition in the Question Rotunda, an on-line educational amusement park for children, age range 7-12.

North Pole Environment Observatory

Starting in 2000, an worldwide research team based on the nation’s Science Foundation (NSF) has carried out annual expeditions each April towards the North Pole to understand the way the world’s northernmost ocean helps regulate global climate. Every year the researchers generate a temporary camping around the ocean ice close to the North Pole to retrieve a 2 . 5 mile-lengthy line, referred to as a mooring, that contains scientific instruments, to place buoys in to the ice and also to otherwise sample the waters from the Arctic Sea.

They records data on from the salinity (quantity of salt) from the water towards the thickness and temperature from the ice cover. Additionally towards the challenge of creating an observatory such harsh conditions, they needs to deal with diving within the icy Arctic Sea, coping with shifting ocean ice that’s frozen solid eventually and open water the following, and keeping a constantly-careful eye for polar bears.

The mooring is retrieved by delivering an acoustic message to among the releases, ordering it to split up the buoyant mooring in the anchor around the seabed. Since there’s no certainty of having the ability to land an plane in the mooring coordinates, a helicopter is frequently necessary.

Research Instruments Used in the North Pole Environment Observatory

Every year the researchers retrieve the last year’s mooring line and instruments to gather data on ocean temps, salinity, current flows and ice thickness. Then, they lower a brand new mooring to gather another year’s price of information.

To place a mooring in position, researchers melt and cut a 4 foot. hole within the ice using warm water melting apparatus, generate a tripod over hole, place a heavy chain and anchor at risk after which lower cable, contributing to the road, at different depths, greater than 17 instruments including current meters, salinity meters, temperature gathering instruments as well as an upward searching sonar to determine the thickness from the ice above. The whole mooring is 2.5 miles (or 14,000 ft) long. Since satellite signals cannot achieve underneath the ice, the researchers cannot talk to the instruments.

Each instrument should be drawn from the ocean to get the data it’s recorded. To make sure recovery from the instruments, also installed on the mooring is really a beacon to assist discover the mooring if this pops up underneath the ice. Obtaining the components from the water is definitely an operation needing divers.

Global Sea Conveyor

The Worldwide Sea Conveyor may be the pattern through which ocean water travels the earth’s oceans. The conveyor functions such as the human heart. Warmer water is pumped to the North Pole and freshwater (runoff from melting ice) will get pumped lower. This pattern happens due to variations in water density. Within the North Atlantic, the variations in water density mostly are triggered by variations in temperature. Cooler water is denser than warmer water. Water heated close to the Equator travels at the top of sea north into cold high latitudes where it might be cooler. Because it cools, it might be denser and sinks towards the deep sea.

More warm surface (fresh) water flows directly into take its place. It cools, it sinks, and also the pattern continues. Because the Earth is constantly on the warm and Arctic ocean ice touches, the growing flow of freshwater in the melting ice is making sea water at high latitudes less dense. The fresher, less dense water won’t have the ability to sink and circulate with the deep sea because it does presently.

Researchers estimate this could slow or steer clear of the Global Sea Conveyor over the following couple of decades. This might alter the climate of northern Europe and areas of The United States which rely on the sea power to hold warmth in the tropics as much as their greater latitudes.

Threat to Animal Habitats from Melting Ocean Ice in the North Pole

The majority of a polar bear’s food, including closes, seafood, as well as beluga whales, originates from the ocean. The floating ocean ice is an ideal standpoint for that bears because they search for food. Regrettably, the quantity of ocean ice floating within the Arctic region is diminishing every year.

Bits of ocean ice are becoming more compact and additional apart. The bears must go swimming farther– 60 miles or even more– with the chilly Arctic Sea to obtain in one bit of ice to a different. Despite the fact that bears are exceptional swimmers, since the bears are in possession of to go swimming farther to obtain the next bit of ocean ice, some become exhausted throughout the lengthy journey and drown.

The United States Seafood and Wildlife Service lately added polar bears towards the threatened species list. Another species threatened by diminishing ice in Antarctica would be the Adele and Emperor Penguins, which like Polar Bears, make use of the ice for hunting and breeding.

Albedo Effect and Proof of Melting Polar Ice Cap

In the North Pole, the weather has warmed quickly previously couple of decades. Average temps within the Arctic are rising two times as quickly as they’re elsewhere on the planet. Within the opposite hemisphere, the Antarctic Peninsula has additionally warmed quickly- five occasions quicker than the worldwide average.

How come the polar regions particularly prone to climatic change? The snow and ice within the polar regions, due to their light color, reflect most incoming solar power back to space. his reflection of solar power is called ice albedo. However, because the Earth’s oceans get warmer, the polar ice caps are diminishing.

Consequently, a smaller amount of the incoming photo voltaic radiation is deflected to space and much more from it is absorbed through the Earth’s surface and oceans. The photo voltaic radiation produces an increasing cycle: warmer oceans cause melting ice, resulting in even warmer oceans and much more quickly melting ice.

Mountain Glaciers

Mountain glaciers are flowing ice, or what many people call ice rivers. Glaciers are first created by snow. When snowflakes pile up to and including certain thickness, the snowflakes get pressed together the same shape as a snowball under ruthless. They are known as firn.

As new snow falls around the mountain, that old snow will get packed lower. The shapes create scores of solid ice. Once the ice builds up close to 300 ft thick, the ice at the end starts to maneuver gradually lower the mountainside, along with a glacier is produced.

In 1827, a stone hut was built around the Bald eagle Glacier within the European Alps. 13 years later, the hut had moved further lower the glacier by 5000 ft. Researchers stated the hut could not move alone also it had not – the glacier had. The hut had simply been moving lower on the top from the glacier.

Diminishing Mountain Glaciers

Among the important functions of glaciers is the capability to supply water to individuals. Glaciers store water by means of ice throughout wet and cooler periods. But, within the dry and warmer periods, they offer water with the runoff of melting ice. As glaciers shrink and disappear, this way to obtain water is going to be reduced and finally be lost. This can modify the entire selection of tropical Andes, in South Usa, the place to find over $ 30 million people. Many large metropolitan areas and farming towns within the Andes rely on glacial runoffs for his or her water.

Based on researchers glaciers are diminishing at record rates and lots of could disappear within decades. Researchers calculating the healthiness of almost 30 glaciers all over the world discovered that ice loss arrived at record levels in the year 2006. The Planet Glacier Monitoring Service reviews that glaciers lost typically in regards to a feet of ice annually between 1980 and 1999. Consider 2000, the interest rate has faster and also the average loss has elevated to around 20 inches.

Our Planet’s Green house Effect

Goldilocks may have stated that: “Venus is simply too hot, Mars is simply too cold, and Earth is simply right.” The truth that Earth is appropriate for existence can’t be described due to the fact our planet orbits at the perfect distance in the Sun.

Our Planet’s moderate temps are the consequence of getting the perfect type of atmosphere. Venus’ atmosphere would produce super hot conditions on the planet, and Mars’ atmosphere could leave us inside a frost nova. On The Planet, areas of our atmosphere behave as an insulation blanket of the perfect thickness, trapping sufficient the sun’s energy to help keep average temps hospitable to existence. Our Planet’s insulation layer is an accumulation of gases known as green house gases since the gases trap warmth such as the glass walls of the green house do.

These gases mostly are water vapor, co2, methane, and nitrous oxide. With no Green house Effect, Earth would warm up, but during the night, all the warmth would radiate back to space and also the planet’s surface temperature would fall far below zero very quickly.

Aftereffect of Fossil Fuel Pollutants

When non-renewable fuels, like coal, oil or gasoline, are burned to energy industrial facilities, electric utility plants, and vehicles, the majority of the carbon pollutants go into the atmosphere as co2 gas.

Five . 5 billion a lot of carbon are launched in to the air every year by burning non-renewable fuels. Of the lots of, 3.3 billion tons stays within the atmosphere.

The growing quantity of carbon that’s being released in the burning of non-renewable fuels in to the Earth’s atmosphere is making the Green house Layer thicker. This really is trapping more warmth in the Sun, and therefore, stopping it from getting away into space.

Renewable Power

Options to burning fossil fuel, for example energy produced from wind, using wind generators, in the sun, using solar power panels, and nuclear energy, don’t release carbon in to the atmosphere. This will make them useful alternative powers in fighting against climatic change.

Natural Part of Oceans and Tropical rain forests in Absorbing Carbon Pollutants

Oceans absorb huge levels of co2 gas. Co2 can also be absorbed by vast amounts of small plankton, also called phytoplankton, which fall towards the sea bottom once they die, trapping carbon in deep bottom layers of sediment.

Researchers are presently experimentation to find out if they are able to stimulate the development from the ocean’s plankton with the addition of iron towards the sea floor. If researchers are effective, iron might be employed to boost the absorption of co2 by oceans included in the combat climatic change.

Rainforests are just like sponges if this involves carbon pollutants. Through the entire process of photosynthesis, plants absorb co2 gas and employ it as fuel for his or her growth.

Worldwide Cooperation on Global Warming

In 1992, 192 nations became a member of an worldwide treaty — the Un Framework Convention on Global Warming (UNFCCC) — to start to think about what you can do to lessen climatic change and to deal with whatever temperature increases are inevitable.

The Convention sees that the worldwide weather conditions are shared by all nations and individuals, and also the stability from the global climate could be broken by pollutants of co2 along with other green house gases.

Greater than 180 nations approved an improvement towards the treaty in 1997 known as the Kyoto Protocol, which sets specific targets for reducing green house gas pollutants.

As the Convention on Global Warming urged nations to stabilize their green house gas pollutants, the Kyoto Protocol legally commits them to do this.

Your Carbon Footprint

Your carbon footprint is the quantity of carbon created by all your activities. For example, creating the facility that forces your gaming might be putting co2 in to the atmosphere if non-renewable fuels were utilised to produce that electricity. Co2 is radiated whenever you ride inside a gasoline powered vehicle.

You are able to think about your carbon footprint like a way of measuring your effect on the atmosphere. Getting a little carbon footprint is preferable to getting a sizable one. Using less energy reduces our carbon footprint.

Suggestions for Lowering Your Carbon Footprint

Here are a few ideas you may consider: Turn things off when they’re not in use, for example lights, game titles, computer systems, and televisions. Use compact fluorescent bulbs designed to use one-quarter from the energy of normal ones.

Recycle paper, plastic, aluminum cans, or glass. Switch off water when you are brushing the teeth. (Moving and cleaning h2o is really a large user of electricity occasionally.) Decide what you would like before opening the refrigerator door therefore it does not stay open more than needed.

Ich in Freshwater Fish: Causes, Treatment, and Prevention

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Ich (ick) is the most common disease of all freshwater and marine aquarium fish. Anyone that keeps fish for any period of time will eventually have fish that develop ich Many hobbyists consider this disease to be just a common nuisance but the reality is that ich is probably responsible for more fish deaths than just about any other disease. There are several effective treatments for ich, but if they are not administered correctly, they can cause serious problems with your fish and tank inhabitants. This article will help explain the source and cause of ich as well as giving treatment options and prevention strategies.

What is ich?

Ich is a protozoan disease that is often called ‘white spot disease.’ The scientific name for the disease is ichthyophthiriasis and the causative agent is Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. It is wide spread in all freshwater fish but appears to be more common in aquarium fish, possibly due to the closer contact and stress involved with aquarium species.

Why fish get ich

Ich is so widespread that many experts feel that it is present in the environment of most aquariums, especially in larger holding tanks, rearing ponds of breeders, collectors, and wholesalers. In fact, just about every aquarium fish will come into contact with this protozoan at several times in its life. Because it is so widespread, most fish have developed a good immune response against the disease to allow them to fight off the protozoan infection before it ever causes any symptoms. Captive fish that develop ich usually get the disease when their immune systems are not functioning as well as they should be because of stress. We know that stress lowers the immune response and when fish are stressed that is when ich is most prevalent.

go green 1There are many causes of stress in a fish’s life, many of which can be made worse or better by the owner. Water temperature, water quality, tank inhabitants, improper diet, and a variety of other factors all contribute to stress, but one of the most severe causes of stress occurs during shipping and handling of a new fish. Whether coming from the wild or farm-raised, the handling and shipping of the fish from their origin to a wholesaler, then to a retailer, and finally to your home is extremely stressful. With the widespread prevalence of ich, it is no wonder that many newly purchased fish are affected.

Identifying ich

The symptoms of ich are very evident and usually include characteristic white spots on the body and gills. In some infections, the ich organisms will only be found on the gills. As the disease progresses, the fish will become more irritated and may try to rub or scratch against the sides and bottom of the tank. The disease may then cause respiratory distress, severe agitation, loss of appetite, and eventually death.

This disease is often identified based upon history, symptoms, and the presence of white spots, but if there is any question, it can be identified microscopically. A lesion can be scraped and viewed under the microscope to reveal a rather large cyst between.5 and 1.5 mm in diameter. It also has a very characteristic large horseshoe-shaped nucleus.

The life cycle of ich

The life cycle of Ichthyophthirius is complicated but very important in understanding the treatment and prevention of ich Once the ich protozoan attaches to the side of the fish, it begins feeding on the skin and tissue causing irritation. The fish’s body begins to wall off the parasite to try to limit its damage. The protozoan continues to move around in the cyst feeding and growing, while the body continues to further encapsulate and wall it off. This encapsulation by the body is one of the reasons that ich is so difficult to treat during this stage of the disease because medications can not penetrate through the wall of the cyst to reach the ich parasite. During this stage, the ich protozoan is called a trophozoite. The trophozoite eventually matures and is termed a “trophont.” It will burst through the cyst wall and then fall to the bottom of the aquarium. It then begins to divide into hundreds of new ich-infecting units called tomites. This stage is very temperature-dependent within its capsule, with the fastest replications occurring at warmer temperatures near 78-80 ° F. At optimum temperatures, the replication will be completed in about 8 hours. At lower temperatures, the replication takes longer making the treatment time for eradication much longer.

Once the replication is complete, the trophont bursts and releases the newly-formed tomites into the water. The tomites are motile and swim around the tank searching for a fish to attach to. Once they attach to a fish, the cycle will start over again. It is during this stage that ich is most susceptible to treatment. Many of the available medications will kill the tomites, thereby stopping the cycle of ich in your tank. It should be noted that these tomites will only survive for 48 hours, if they do not find a fish to attach to. These tomites will also attach to plants, filter material, etc. So if you move a plant from an infected tank into a clean tank, you have just infected the clean tank with ich. Depending on the water temperature, the whole cycle can take from 4 days to several weeks.

Treating ich.

Now that we understand the life cycle of freshwater ich, many of our treatment recommendations make more sense. Because the life cycle is temperature-dependent and the ich can only be killed in the tomite stage, we will want to raise the tank temperature to 78-80 ° F over 48 hours to speed the cycle of tomite formation and release. Theoretically, if the cycle takes four days to complete at this temperature, then the treatment should be complete in 4 days. On the other hand, if the temperature is much colder, for example at 60 ° F, the treatment would need to last for several weeks or longer.

Since we understand that we can not kill ich while it is on the fish, we know that moving a fish to a quarantine tank to treat will not solve the problem in the main tank. The time to use a quarantine tank is before a new fish is introduced into a display tank. If a fish in a tank has ich, you must assume that the entire tank is now contaminated with ich and must be treated.

Another way to get ich out of a tank is to remove all of the fish. Since we know that the tomites can only survive for 48 hours without attaching to a fish, if we remove all of the fish and then raise the temperature to 80 °, the existing ich in the tank should be dead after 2 days. To be safe, wait 4 days before returning the fish to the tank. But remember, you will need to treat the tank that the fish are moved to, otherwise, fish entering that tank could become infected.

Remember, we are treating the tank, not the fish, so all effective treatments are designed to kill the trophite form of the disease while it is in the tank. The mature ich organisms that cause the problems on the fish do not die from treatment, but fall off in a couple of days during their normal life cycle and then their offspring die from the treatment in the water.

Some of the best treatments historically have been formalin or malachite green, or a combination of the two. Copper, methylene blue, and baths of potassium permanganate, quinine hydrochloride, and sodium chloride have also been used but do not appear to offer an advantage over the more readily available formalin and malachite green products.

When using formalin, make sure to use recently purchased formalin. Formalin that is stored for long periods of time can convert to paraformaldehyde, which can be toxic to fish. An indicator that this has occurred is the formation of a white precipitate in the bottle. Malachite green may also stain some decorations and silicone to a green color and may be toxic to piranhas, neons, sunfish, and some scaleless fish, if given at the recommended dose. For these fish or other sensitive species, they should be treated at half strength and monitored carefully for signs of distress.

While we rarely recommend treating an entire tank for a disease, ich is an exception. Make sure to follow individual label directions, and remove the carbon from your filter and shut off any UV sterilizers or protein skimmers during treatment because they will inactivate or remove any medications that are added.

Preventing ich.

Ich is a very common disease and if your fish get it, you are going to end up having to treat the entire tank. Therefore, it is a much easier disease to prevent than treat, and the following is a list of suggestions for helping to prevent ich in your tank:

Only purchase healthy fish that are free of all signs of disease.

Never buy fish from a tank that contains a dead or a diseased fish.

Always place new fish in a proper quarantine tank for a minimum of two weeks before introducing them into your tank.

Never buy plants from a source that keeps them in a fish tank with fish. If you do, make sure to quarantine your plants for at least 4 days.

Purchase fish from as direct a source as possible to reduce shipping and handling stress.

Remove to a quarantine tank and treat any fish that begins to show the first signs of ich.

Avoid any fluctuations in temperature, pH, or ammonia levels as these are all very stressful to fish and can result in an outbreak of ich.

Always feed a variety of properly stored food including freeze dried, frozen, and flaked.

Do not overstock your tank. Most tanks have too many fish and not enough cover which leads to stress, disease, and increased mortality.

Maintain excellent water quality and do regular water changes.

While ich may be the most common disease in aquarium fish, it does not have to infect your tank. By following these preventive guidelines and promptly treating any infected fish, you can greatly reduce the damage that can be caused by this deadly disease.

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